After reading Lourd de Veyra’s post in This Is A Crazy Planets for Rodrigo Duterte and his projected inaugural speech on I have considered the option of voting for the badass mayor in 2016. Another thing that made me reconsider Duterte is the so-called forum that happened in De La Salle University in which he and his running mate Allan Peter Cayetano are the only tandem who attended the forum which looked more of a campaign just with that university and the things he said in that forum.

Voting for Duterte is good for some of the people but if we really think hard about it, are we really ready for a person like him to run the country especially for people who are not accustomed or used to see news of someone being dumped in the Pasig River or getting hanged in billboards surrounded by people in Quiapo or EDSA with a sign also attached to them like a necklace with the signs saying; “Pusher ako”, “Rapist ako”, “Adik ako” for that matter. More important is for the funeral parlors to be ready to cater a lot of corpses than they use to.

If we vote for the man over any other candidate, he can really win the GOD DAMNED THING. Because everyone is tired of seeing trapos doing these not so subtle commercials that they are already campaigning themselves.

If Duterte really wins the 2016 election don’t expect the crime rate to easily go down that fast but the fear of Duterte himself and the Davao Death Squad will be there for the motherfuckers who dare to make a move under his presidency. I would be thrilled than fearful to see some criminals floating in the Pasig River. If not floating in the river probably placed inside a barrel or drum in very narrow alley within Metro Manila. The Davao Death Squad will now become the Philippine National Death Squad possibly getting rid of the incompetent policemen who are as incompetent and fat like the chief of police in ‘The Simpsons’, Chief Wiggum and replacing the Philippine National Police as a whole.

In that forum at DLSU, it’s good to hear his plans for agriculture since Mindanao has rich rice fields and plantations of some sorts which from my understanding, is really the backbone of the country’s economy not just the region itself. Not these developers who are trying hard to make skyscrapers and skylines. Even ruin Jose Rizal’s background.

When he becomes president, I only hope and pray hard that he can solve the traffic problem in Metro Manila because every mayor in each city of Metro Manila is not really capable of easing the problem but for one thing; Manila Mayor Joseph Estrada and Vice Mayor Isko Moreno did this truck ban to ease the traffic in Manila but then lifted the ban because of pressure from truck drivers and business owners who find it hard to make things work during the window hours.

I hope he plans to regulate the number of cars being sold to individuals and also limiting bus liners to have only this number of buses under each franchises or bus liners. We hope that Duterte encourages people to take public transportation and increase the number of trains for all lines whether it’s the MRT, LRT or even the PNR. Point is we need more trains.

He should have the idea to establish a railroad program that will establish a line that would distribute cargo easily so that cargo vessels won’t have a hard time distributing goods from the Bureau of Customs and ports across the country.

Since Duterte is a law graduate, I hope he improves the justice system with reforms that would bring back the trust and faith of the people who has completely lost their trust and faith with the system. I would like to see a much faster process in the justice system in which appeals will be limited to only one appeal. As for entrusting the justice system I only trust someone who graduated from UP, San Beda, and Ateneo to run the justice system particularly, the Supreme Court.

I don’t really mind Duterte bringing back the death penalty if he wants to because it is just practical because no one is afraid of going to jail these days. His future secretary of justice should have a reform in the penal system that makes corrupt officials eligible for death penalty that would surely get rid of some corrupt officials in power so that they can no longer contaminate the world. They should also turn things around in the New Bilibid Prison by depriving the prisoners of their VIP treatment like Tony Leviste who can enter and exit Bilibid whenever he wants so as Rolito Go, and many other prisoners serving lifetime sentences because of their high profile case. Also get rid of prisoners who can make music videos just within the facility. Give them hell on earth.

With the issue of Duterte taking mathematics out of the curriculum, I completely disagree with his idea of getting rid of math at all because how can one person become qualified to study engineering, architecture, and a business course if one student does not know how to calculate? I may have struggle with the subject especially in Behavioral Statistics when I was still a psychology major but getting rid of math will only benefit the delinquents who struggled with math many times.

Schools in the provinces should expand and have more classrooms because I’m really tired of seeing public schools having this shortage of classes and especially the lack of updated textbooks.

The DSWD under his presidency should not be the DSWD that we know today because of pilfering the relief goods that came to benefit the victims of typhoon Yolanda then hiding the poor and homeless whenever a big time dignitary comes to the country like the ones Dinky Soliman brought to a resort during the Pope’s visit in January 2015.

The DPWH should progress efficiently not only work very fast with Duterte as president especially with the construction of the Skyway because if the people working at the DPWH do not want to lose their jobs they should really do well if they do not want to get a standing ovation from his middle finger and the big PUTANG INA NIYO from his mouth.

It is not only the Skyway that needs to get done under his term or any other candidate. There should be something that would really connect the archipelago under his term from bridges and much stronger Roro boats.

Taking the Commission on Human Rights out of the picture as he wants to is not really a solution because the CHR is just this organization telling us how to care for helpless human beings even if they are criminals who has their pair of testicles tied to a string being pulled by a loose cannon cop traumatizing the criminal to not do it again. But let’s be honest here, Duterte does not only want to get rid of the CHR because of Etta Rosales’ predecessor, Leila de Lima because the way I see it, he only wants to get rid of the criminals and their human right to have a lawyer and seek fair trial.

As for his disputes happening as early as now, it’s not really entertaining to see aspiring presidents talk bad things about each before the campaign proper and the debates because it’s like spoilers to a movie that you have long waited for another sequel then it would just be ruined by a childish argument. But for both Duterte and Roxas, keep it going.

If it is really Election Day tomorrow in the Philippines, I would really vote and pray hard for this guy to win so that the D.O.M. living next to us would stop ranting that he regrets coming back to the Philippines after living in Japan for twenty years.



Luckily my zodiac sign is not cancer but on a serious note, why must terminal illnesses or diseases like cancer take the ones near and dear to us?

The world is having a rough week with the passing of David Bowie and as of this writing, Alan Rickman popularly known as Severus Snape in the Harry Potter series has died with the same disease as Bowie and at the same age of 69 and before 2016 in the latter days of 2015, Lemmy Kilmister of Motörhead died of cancer but a year older of both Bowie and Rickman.

Suddenly, I remembered the George Harrison, the youngest member of The Beatles died of cancer just at the age of 58 in 2001. Twenty one years just after John Lennon’s death in 1980. Dirty Dancing and Ghost lead star, Patrick Swayze died of pancreatic cancer in 2009 at the age of 57 so as Steve Jobs died of pancreatic cancer in 2011. Here in the Philippines, Johnny Delgado died of cancer in 2009. President Cory Aquino also died of the same disease and many others even the late education secretary and senator Raul Roco.

When I was in high school, I had a teacher in English who was always happy to be with us every day of the week. She was Miss Bonn Vibar. I first met Miss Bonn when I left my umbrella in school then when I was about to claim the umbrella from her because she has used we had a little talk and told to take care of my umbrella and the rest were history and every day of school were no longer dull. It’s not even that obvious that she was sick. It’s almost six years since her passing because of cancer and I just wish that as one of her students I could have known her better and spent more time with her not just within Angelicum but also outside the school.

Another person that I know back in high school that died of cancer was a school mate named Joshua Lipana and for a young guy like Joshua, I never thought of him bearing that sickness. Joshua was a dear friend to my friend Ingrid. Joshua was vocal but not radical about his political views. If not for him, I would not have given a damn about social issues.

People here in the Philippines often say that cancer is only exclusive to the rich but it’s not that true because cancer does not choose the people that they want to deteriorate. The issue is that rich people truly have the means for their check up, treatment, and that they are diagnosed properly while the middle class and the third class are hardly diagnosed properly because they don’t have the means to afford check up, the treatment then the medication. It is the third leading cause of death in the country.

As we live our lives, we have certain habits that could contribute to develop a certain disease. It may not be cancer but we always have to watch our balance and the very reason why we must eat healthy, have a balanced meal and have a healthy lifestyle.

There are a lot of bad habits that causes cancer such as smoking and drinking. I don’t deny that sometimes I smoke out of stress and during the times that I smoke, I would always think of myself then I would regret that I smoked and I disrespected our pediatrician in the times that I smoke but I just want to find a way out of a certain problem and I found the wrong way.

The last time I met with my pediatrician was when was still studying psychology. I asked a favor by asking if she knows some psychologists in the hospitals that she works. She gave the names of the doctors that she knows. After I caught up with her in UST Hospital on the day I met one of the doctors she suggested, I promised myself not to smoke again because she helped me conquer asthma until I smoked again out of stress. I just owe her big time and I don’t want her effort towards me and many other patients out there wasted. I don’t want her to know that one of her asthmatics like me died of cancer. Other than the fear of getting lung cancer, I also don’t want to lose my voice and talk like a Battle Droid from Star Wars.

As for drinking, I no longer drink that much alcohol the way I did during my teens but man I don’t want to die of liver cancer for my drinking. Which is why no matter how much we drink moderately, it would still contribute negatively to cause not just cancer but also hepatitis and many other sicknesses known to man.

Cancer does not go away that easy after many medications or quitting smoking and drinking because it’s not just these two common causes that can causes cancer. Cancer is sometimes caused by sun exposure, radiation and UV exposure which caused Hugh Jackman’s skin cancer. If he was not Wolverine he might not have cured himself but kidding aside Hugh Jackman was more than lucky that he immediately took care of himself and it was only skin cancer.

It is sometimes hereditary. One parent would be diagnosed of a certain type of cancer then one child would have the same type cancer. It’s hard for some people to be like this and I wish that people won’t have to be like this.

If I were studying medicine or med tech I would do my best in my academics to finish my program then earn my degree and when I get to graduate school and finish graduate studies I would do my best to work with people doing certain researches on finding an effective cure for cancer because chemotherapy for all I know costs so much and sometimes it’s not helpful in curing cancer.

I have never met a cancer survivor but if there was one person I know someone who kept fighting and never backed down is the mother of my brother’s basketball teammate here in our place.

It was just last summer when I saw her wearing a headdress that resembles a female bonnet but knowing how a cancer patient looks like, I didn’t just assume right there and there if she really has cancer but secretly I asked one of our friends on what happened with his mom and he told me that she has cancer.

She’s very supportive of her son and my brother whenever they get to be teammates for a certain inter-barangay league for summer since basketball tournaments are always a thing for the summer in certain areas here. She even treats us like her relatives for greeting us every time she gets to see us in our community and as for this writing, we haven’t seen her but we always give her a place in thoughts and prayers for her recovery.

Another story of fighting cancer that I am amazed is the story of Andi Manzano-Reyes’ mom where in a long post that she posted on her Facebook fan page not more than five years that she has to be strong for everyone in their family being the eldest and the day that her mom was cured, she was more than happy that her mom was cured and after reading that post, I almost cried. I could only hope and pray for everyone suffering to recover and be cured of the disease.

I really hate this sickness because this sickness has taken a lot of people away from us whether it is one of our beloved celebrities or relatives and friends. It is really heartbreaking to know that someone died because of the sickness. We would always wish that we won’t feel poor because having a little money makes us helpless to help ourselves save money and for others.

So for cancer, please leave us alone. Stop taking the people we love away from us whether they are an aging celebrity or a relative and friend that makes us happy to live and thankful for the gift of life.

For the people doing things that lures cancer closer to them every minute and every second of the day, quit smoking now and smoking e-cigarettes is not even an alternative for it can also cause tubercolosis. Quit alcohol because alcohol is not an alternate for water but if you can’t quit then at least drink responsibly then eat a balanced meal by eating a lot of fruits and vegetables, a whole lot of rice more than just meat because meat can also damage our colon and cause colon cancer.

Farewell Kuya Germs


It’s my first time writing a tribute and with that, we always thought that some people in entertainment particularly here in the Philippines will be with us forever in our lives from Julie Vega, Nida Blanca, Fernando Poe Jr., Francis Magalona to Dolphy.

It was just last Thursday when a friend invited me to visit the Cinematheque Centre Manila in Kalaw the place that formerly houses the linguistic school, Instituto Cervantes de Manila. When we got there, we planned to watch the showing of Lino Brocka’s ‘Maynila: Sa Mga Kuko ng Liwanag’ based from Edgardo M. Reyes’ novel “Sa Mga Kuko ng Liwanag” then Peque Gallaga and Lore Reyes’ ‘Sonata’ starring Cherie Gil. In our visit there, my friend asked me a random question and the question was, ‘what were German Moreno’s notable films?’ I told her of one movie titled ‘Payaso’ from 1986 directed by Celso Ad Castillo in which he was the star and gave cameo to some of the actors who were popular at that time and the actors who owe their success to him.

After the visit, I was still up late at night and I told her that the news of German Moreno’s death. Before telling her of German Moreno’s demise I could not believe it myself because she just asked me in Cinematheque what are some of his notable movies then when I saw the headline of German Moreno’s demise, you would think that it’s another RIP spam spread like John Cena’s or any famous celebrity out there.

I’m not really a big fan of German Moreno but I salute him for making some of the celebrities we know both past and present famous especially for the generation of ‘That’s Entertainment’ in which we still some of them today on TV regardless of network and I say regardless of network because some of them will be under German Moreno’s watch then when the time comes they would go to a different network outside GMA. Knowing him as a generous man from the people who have fond memories of him it’s unlikely that he would hold a grudge.

His staying power in show business is amazing that really started from the bottom and reaching the success that we know as viewers which in my opinion really gave him that staying power because he shared it. He did not keep that success to himself because he truly shared it whether one talent succeeded or not because the values he shared will remain.

It’s really sad that some of the people only know him for that one punchline, “Walang Tulugan!” from drug addicts to alcoholics which is also the title of his late night Saturday show in GMA. Sometimes I even think it’s a sign of disrespect and disservice to Kuya Germs for giving him that timeslot and seriously who still watches TV that late because it’s Saturday in which some of the people are having a night out, getting drunk or getting laid and some are sleeping already so they won’t be late for the mass on Sunday morning for their favorite parish priest or any priest in that parish.

With his demise, there’s no more late night Saturday variety show like his. There’s no more screen time for anyone who wants to be a star the way he gave it whether it is ‘That’s Entertainment’ or ‘Walang Tulugan’ and more important is there’s no more dress changes between commercials from one sequenced suit to another.

Like you said, WALANG TULUGAN!



Many people won’t admit it especially guys like us but we have liked somebody not because our heart and mind commanded it but because our libido made us like the person instantly and the lasting impression of how they look when we first saw them wearing that pencil skirt with that white tank top and gray cardigan or how tight their high-waist pants was with that black tank top when you saw them wear it in some year-ender event in your school begging to get laid.

Before we get naughty with some stories when I was still a psychology major, the one thing I learned about libido is that we must always find a way to gratify it. For starters, there is spanking your monkey, fapping well masturbation in general. There are a lot of ways to spank your monkey. Just ask one of your friends if you could borrow one of his favorite men’s magazines with your favorite model and actress from GMA in it. If you want real action but don’t want to get someone pregnant, there always the nearest drugstore or convenience store to buy yourself a condom but if you really can’t help it, control the urge from having sex at all and suppress that dirty mind from all the fantasies you have. So without libido, you cannot have that sexual urge to have that person in your mind and get it on with her.

Back in high school, I was invited to this birthday party then I didn’t expect that it will be an overnight party. I did not have extra clothes since we all went there after school and I really wanted to go home but it was too late to back out, I didn’t bring my casuals and their driver will be too tired to bring me home since she lives in Libis which is like the Alabang of the north Metro Manila. Later that night, when we were all dressed to sleep I was already drunk with some of our friends then I remember her wearing this intimate outfit that tells every guy in the room; “Hey boys, who wants to go first?” Nothing happened but all I can do was look at her from head-to-toe with my drunk self then some of her girl friends in the room tells me, “HOY RICKY! NGAYON LANG BA NAKAKITA NG CLEAVAGE?” and with all honesty I told her yes. We were all friends until some of us had differences and back stabbing each other.

In my three semesters of college, I have almost gone crazy with some of the girls in school. One was with this skinny college senior who really looked hot in that psychology uniform and man she could really leave a trail of fire when she walk around the campus. Another is with someone who’s truly high maintenance but for now let’s leave it that way. But allow me to write this instead when I was enrolled for the summer in our school, I had this classmate in summer class who wanted to copy this statistical software from me. Now I didn’t expect her to go to me to copy that software since I didn’t look like one of the bad boys but that didn’t make me safe from that one friend and class mate who told me after I let her copy the software, “TANGINA KA PRE TINIGASAN NA PINAGPAPAWISAN PA!” He’s one guy who would really want to give it to her more than me. I’m still friends with the man.

I’ve never had lady friend who is truly willing to share how she dreams or fancies a guy but if some men could only imagine how the ladies dream of getting it on with the man of their dreams the way we do with our own flavor of the month, let’s try now. Let’s try to think like a girl and imagine how would a hunk Brazilian in this godforsaken country would knock on our doorstep just to ask for directions but instead of giving them the directions they need we pucker our lips to them. Then we grasp their chiseled bodies and wrap our legs around their waist. Then the girl begs to be stripped off her clothes and wanting to feel that pleasure. If I were a girl that horny I would think that way.

Now we go to part where we will difference libido from love.

For guys like us, libido happens when you want to go to the gym and get ripped just to get that girl’s attention and get it on with her for one night. Love happens when you are working out not to get that Derek Ramsey physique but because you are as scrawny as hell and you love yourself that you want to shape up to gain respect and respect yourself as well, not just to get that girl’s attention. Libido is when you buy a men’s magazine fap over it a lot and didn’t care about the consequence. Love is when you just buy one and don’t fap over it because you don’t want to get a single drop of you sperm over it since it is your prized possession and you still want to have it signed on the autograph signing before keeping it to your stash. For both girls and boys, libido does the work when you buy a bunch of roses, pick its petals and spread it all over the floor leading to one room with one person wearing a bath robe to the tune of George Michael’s ‘Careless Whisper’. Love is just buying a single stem of rose or bouquet of roses with a box of chocolates and just asking her for a date. Libido is truly working when you ask someone to watch ‘No Strings Attached’, ‘Friends with Benefits’, ‘Fifty Shades of Grey’ even ‘Good Luck Chuck’ for crying out loud and trying to put themselves in the love scene and the masochism. Love is asking that one person to watch that romantic comedy whether it’s a Hollywood film or even a local film.

With that, we can never know when or how will our libido get a hold of us because when that happens it is when we go crazy for someone and never explain precisely on why did even like the person in the first place.

New Year’s Resolutions We Never Live out, Habits We Never Break and Expectations We Must Expect This Year

New Year 2016 card

New Year’s resolutions don’t work so much because some people tend to repeat certain habits that they wanted to end such as ‘I’m quitting smoking’, ‘I’ll never drink again’, ‘I’m going to the gym to have abs or lose weight’, ‘I’ll never spank my monkey again’, ‘I am going to look for and hook up with a better and much cuter boyfriend’ and so much more but seriously how many of these examples were really lived out?

This is what I hate about the resolutions people made and never keep them at all like a promise.

I still see one of our neighbors drink over and over. I still see that neighbor smoking three packs of cigarettes. I’ve never seen that other neighbor looking very worked out and ripped after months of going to the gym because they don’t make the effort to do so because they are still going to that fast-food chain with the clown or chubby bee even that military official cooking fried chicken and that former classmate in my previous major still heartbroken because she never learns to find a boyfriend that’s really husband material. Still giving that douche bag a chance to hook up after getting caught many times rather than the guy who has made all the effort from poetry and saving money so you guys can watch Hunger Games because it’s your favorite book. So please have mercy on yourselves and break the habit that you guys keep recycling every year.

Okay enough of that rant. My solution to the things I ranted about is if they fail to carry out those resolutions, give them a consequence by challenging or dare that friend to pay your the tickets for you to see the upcoming ‘Batman VS Superman’ movie or any upcoming Marvel this year and if you’re a girl ask that person to buy you that very expensive coffee with a promo of having their new year planner but instead of them keeping the planner you get to keep the planner to yourself.

Now if that doesn’t work, there’s always next year.

As for me, I’ve had my share of broken resolutions and if I were to name a resolution that I broke, it’s quitting smoking, quitting alcohol and going to read more books than staying up online for something unnecessary. Like alcohol, I didn’t quit but I learn to moderate.

For what will happen this year I don’t expect everything is laid out this year for myself so because like many people, I always have to work for some of the things in my life such as love life, academics, finances so I can have this cap or t-shirt or see that new movie and like the past couple of years it’s always going to be a challenge. I still have to plan what I would like to happen for this year.

Now we go to the part were some things are important.

Philippines 2016, I don’t know if we are really ready for a president who is not afraid to say bad words. So no holds barred for this portion, ARE WE REALLY READY FOR A BADASS PRESIDENT TO RUN THIS COUNTRY? Are we ready for Rodrigo Duterte to kill the criminals roaming around the dark places of Metro Manila and put corrupt officials out of office? Because if you would ask me, I am ready to conform and comply with society with this guy in Malacanang but if we talk about his running mate, I have said it before and I will say it again, Alan Peter Cayetano is nothing but a whining brat who wants the Binays out of office and may be, just may be out of his sight with a badass front runner in his side but a part of me still says his only using Duterte’s popularity for a easy win and easy access to Malacanang. But with his candidacy still in limbo, do we still see a Philippines under his rule?

If the government here in the Philippines only have a bipartisan system, Miriam Defensor-Santiago will be the one and only candidate for me qualified to be his opponent if the protest against his candidacy gets junked. But if the protest gets Duterte out of the picture the same way with Grace Poe, I would still vote for Miriam Defensor-Santiago no matter what happens. I don’t care if some politicians can work their magic, because if Miriam does not get that position to be presidential front runner of one party, or Miriam does not win at all, I would probably urinate at the gates of Malacanang and yell FUCK THE SYSTEM.

As I type this, I don’t really know who I am really going to vote for in May if Duterte makes the ballot because when Duterte told the country that he will not run for president in 2016 my mind is all set for MDS because MDS, is a good choice if you are not ready to see bodies getting dumped everywhere by the Davao Death Squad that may soon replace some of the incompetent police on duty or the Davao Death Squad could be a special unit along with Special Action Forces renaming them the Philippine National Death Squad.

Knowing Senator Miriam as a standout lawyer, I only see reforms in the justice system if she becomes president which is good and she better have reforms that would eliminate the special treatment given to high profile criminals since the Bureau of Jail Management and Penology and the Bureau of Corrections are under the justice system. I also see reforms in education but I don’t see her taking out the K+12 but rather clarifying the whole country on what it is really all about. As for infrastructure and agriculture I hope the people who will be part of her cabinet will connect the archipelago and turn the country into Asia’s rice bowl once again.

For both candidates, I hope they can give the people easy access to health care because hospitals really milking out the public especially private hospitals. I hate seeing people on TV crying because they can’t afford the bills. It’s just that depressing.


In sports, too bad Ginebra is already out. I just hope Yeng Guiao will finally get that All-Filipino title with Rain or Shine in the semis and in the hunt for the All-Filipino title.

Talk about Rain or Shine I’m happy with Raymond Almazan’s statement that you are just too darn stupid if you reject the National Team’s (Gilas Pilipinas) call to practice and play.

In the NBA I’m not that sad too know that the Golden State Warriors lost to the Dallas Mavericks giving the Warriors just their second lost of the season and with Stephen Curry out because of bruises, the team will survive but more players should step up because it’s not every game that the Splash Brothers will be making shots. As for the whole team, it’s not impossible that they could surpass the 1995-1996 Chicago Bulls or at least they could be as close to that 72-10 lineup because more important here is that their good standing would mean nothing if they don’t win back-to-back championship and man Luke Walton is doing a good job in Steve Kerr’s place.

For baseball in the major league, I hope the San Francisco Giants will have a better season and I hope that they will be a very healthy team this year. I just feel bad for them not keeping Mike Leake in the lineup, making him go back to the National League Central not to his former team Cincinnati Reds but to the St. Louis Cardinals. That could have been a good pitching rotation for the Giants with Madison Bumgarner, Jeff Samardzija, Johnny Cueto, Matt Cain (If he’s really one hundred percent), Tim Lincecum (If the Giants would still want him back), Chris Heston, Jake Peavy and hope more good trades especially getting Yoenis Cespedes.

As for the teams in the American League like the World Series champions, Kansas City Royals they are the only team I know in the American League who would still be in the postseason other than the Toronto Blue Jays but with David Price out of Toronto now with Boston, it’s hard to see the Blue Jays leading the AL East after that phenomenal win against Texas last postseason with Jose Bautista’s three-run home run in what many consider the longest seventh inning of that postseason.


In movies, I hope I can watch all of the Marvel movies that will be released this year. I also hope that I can finally watch a Cinemalaya entry and that more films in the country will get the recognition it deserves. I also hope Philippine cinema will have more brilliant script writers and directors that will tell us more stories that will leave us in awe and thinking how a story like that was written.

So with a new post and a new year may we find hope this year in all aspects. Let us not expect so much from others but rather have faith in their abilities.